Gastroschisis—Child

  • gas-tro-skee-sis
  • Definition

    Gastroschisis is a birth defect that creates a gap in the muscles and skin of the abdominal wall. Intestines can push through the gap to the outside of the body. A gastroschisis tends to occur to the right of the belly button.
    A gastroschisis may be small and only involve a section of intestines or be large and involve other abdominal organs. It may be associated with intestinal atresia.
    Normal Anatomy of the Abdominal Organs
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  • Causes

    Gastroschisis develops before birth during development of the abdominal wall. It is not clear why, but the abdominal wall does not close completely in one area. It may be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
  • Risk Factors

    Gastroschisis is more common in babies born to teenage mothers. Other factors that may increase the chances of your baby having gastroschisis include:
    • Maternal smoking
    • Alcohol during pregnancy
    • Urinary tract infections during pregnancy
  • Symptoms

    Intestines will be visible outside of the body. Often to the right of the bellybutton.
  • Diagnosis

    Gastroschisis may be suspected after blood tests in the mother. A fetal ultrasound will show if there are intestines outside of the abdominal wall. Early diagnosis will help make birth and treatment plans. Gastroschisis not diagnosed before birth will be apparent as soon as the child is born.
    Additional imaging tests may be done to help plan treatment.
  • Treatment

    Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan for your baby. Treatment may include one or more of the following:
    Medication
    The intestines are often damaged. Your baby may have difficulty with digestion and need supportive care. Medications may include:
    • Dextrose and electrolyte solutions for nutrition and hydration.
    • Antibiotics if an infection is present or possible.
    Surgery
    The goal of surgery is to put intestine and other organs back in place and close damaged wall. The type of surgery will depend on the extent of the gastroschisis.
    Large defects may require several surgeries over a long period of time.
  • Prevention

    To help reduce your chance of your baby having gastroschisis:
    • Quit smoking before and during pregnancy.
    • Avoid alcohol during pregnancy.
    If you are pregnant, talk to your doctor about prenatal care and testing.
  • RESOURCES

    Birth DefectsCenters for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov

    March of Dimes http://www.marchofdimes.com

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    March of Dimes Canada http://www.marchofdimes.ca

    Public Health Agency of Canada http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca

    References

    Birth defects-diagnosis. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/diagnosis.html . Updated February 24, 2011. Accessed March 28, 2013.

    Birth defects-facts about gastroschisis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/gastroschisis.html . Updated March 26, 2013. Accessed March 27, 2013.

    Gastroschisis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://dynamed.ebscohost.com/about/about-us . Updated August 28, 2012. Accessed March 27, 2013.

    Holland AJ, Walker K, Badawi N. Gastroschisis: an update. Pediatr Surg Int . 2010;26(9):871-878.

    Revision Information

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