Central Cord Syndrome

(CCS; Central Cervical Cord Syndrome; Central Cord Injury; Injury, Central Cord; Paralysis, Upper Extremity; Syndrome, Central Cord; Syndrome, Central Cervical Cord; Upper Extremity Paralysis; Acute Central Cord Syndrome)
  • Definition

    Central cord syndrome (CCS) is a type of incomplete spinal cord injury. CCS is marked by damage to the nerve fibers that bring messages from the brain to the body. This condition affects how you can use your arms and hands, and in some cases, your legs. There may be a loss of sensation and motor control.
    Spinal Cord
    Spinal Cord
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  • Causes

    CCS is caused by damage to the central part of the spinal cord. This damage may occur when the neck is hyperextended. This can be associated with:
    • Syringomyelia (syrinx)—a cyst in the spinal cord
    • Loss of blood supply to the area
    • Bleeding in the spinal cord
    • Swelling
    Common causes of injury include:
    • Trauma (such as car accident, sports injuries, falls)
    • Degenerative condition of spine (often found in older people)
    • Pre-existing condition, such as being born with a narrow spine
    CSS can also be due to:
    • Structural problems
    • Tumors within the spinal cord
  • Risk Factors

    Males over 50 are more likely to have this condition. Risk factors that increase your chances of developing CCS include:
    • Autoimmune disorder (such as multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica)
    • Pre-existing condition (such as narrow spinal canal, spinal cord disease, tethered cord)
    • Participation in certain sports (such as wrestling, diving)
  • Symptoms

    If you have any of these symptoms, do not assume it is due to CCS. These symptoms may be caused by other conditions.
    • Unable to lift arms and hands completely, or numbness and tingling
    • Difficulty with fine motor control (such as buttoning a shirt)
    • Muscle weakness in legs, difficulty walking
    • Loss of bladder control
    If CCS is due to trauma, symptoms usually come quickly. Sometimes, however, symptoms may come more slowly.
  • Diagnosis

    Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. A neurologic exam may also be done.
    Your doctor may want pictures of your spinal cord. These can be taken with:
  • Treatment

    Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Rehab can take a long time for some patients. If you are young and have more muscle function, you have a better chance of recovering.
    Treatment options include the following:
    Nonsurgical Treatment
    In most cases, surgery is not needed. Often treatment involves:
    • Restricting neck movement
    • Giving steroids
    • Doing physical and occupational therapy
    Surgery
    Surgery is needed if there is a large compression of the spinal cord fibers. Surgery may also be done after a period of recovery. For example, if you still have cord compression after a recovery period.
  • Prevention

    To help reduce your chance of getting a spinal cord injury, take the following steps:
    • Avoid diving if you do not know how deep the water is.
    • Always wear a seatbelt.
    • Do not drink and drive. Do not ride with someone who has been drinking.
    • Remove obstacles in your house, like throw rugs, that could cause falls.
    • Use safe methods and proper equipment when playing sports.
    • Secure firearms.
  • RESOURCES

    Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation http://www.christopherreeve.org

    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov

    National Spinal Cord Injury Association http://www.spinalcord.org

    CANADIAN RESOURCES

    Canadian & American Spinal Research Organization http://www.csro.com

    Spinal Cord Research Centre http://www.scrc.umanitoba.ca

    References

    Check for safety: a home fall prevention checklist for older adults. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/toolkit/Falls%5FToolKit/DesktopPDF/English/booklet%5FEng%5Fdesktop.pdf. Published 2005. Accessed November 27, 2012.

    Clinical Syndromes. J Spinal Cord Med. 2007;30:215-224.

    Cortez R, Levi AD. Acute Spinal Cord Injury. Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 2007;9:115-125.

    Finnoff JT, Midlenberger D, et al. Central cord syndrome in a football player with congenital spinal stenosis. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:516-521.

    NINDS central cord syndrome information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/central%5Fcord/central%5Fcord.htm. Updated September 27, 2011. Accessed November 27, 2012.

    Rich V, McCaslin E. Central cord syndrome in a high school wrestler: a case report. J Athl Train. 2006;41:341-344.

    Spinal cord injury—acute management. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated November 13, 2012. Accessed November 27, 2012.

    Spinal cord injury—chronic management. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated September 6, 2012. Accessed November 27, 2012.

    Spinal cord injury center. American Association of Neurological Surgeons website. Available at: http://www.spineuniverse.com/displayarticle.php/spinal-cord-3134.html. Updated November 9, 2009. Accessed November 27, 2012.

    Spinal cord injury (SCI): prevention tips. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/sciprevention.htm. Updated November 21, 2012. Accessed November 27, 2012.

    Visocchi M, Di Rocco F, et al. Subacute clinical onset of post-traumatic myelopathy. Acta Neurochir. 2003;145: 799-804.

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